Osku county is located in the 35 km of southwest of Tabriz city, the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. This county has been considered as one of the oldest settlements made beside Sahand Mountains. One of the oldest documents the name of Osku has mentioned in is the II Sargon Inscription. He has been achieved to Ushkaya (Maybe the current Osku). This county has mild & humid weather due to being located in Sahand foothills, the weather coldness and the steams & humidity of the Uremia Lake.
Kandovan beautiful & historical village is located at the distance of 52 kilometers south of Tabriz and at the distance of 20 kilometers southeast of Osku in the western foothills of Sahand mountain as well as at the 2400 meters height of the sea. This village is located at the 45 degrees and 31 minutes east longitude as well as at the 37 degrees and 48 minutes northern latitude. The natural shape, position & defensive aspect of village texture is one of the attractions to live there. Kandovan historical village is one of the most wonderful villages in Iran due to geographical & natural excellent features. The beautiful rocky architecture, pleasant mountain weather & climate, water-rich River, green gardens, with therapeutic properties mineral water, the bungalows around the village, beautiful landscape as well as the other historical & natural monuments have turned this village to one of the tourism target villages in the province.
The architecture monuments of this area have been curved in slopes of one of the northwest heights of Sahand volcano. Abundant water & camouflage of architecture monuments by the surrounding environment for being hidden from the invaders as well as accessibility to food and enough forage are of the reasons for selecting this area by the designers.
The date of residence in Hillevar village (the neat village to Kandovan) is not determined exactly. Crockery glazed related to Ilkhani to Safavid periods indicates the existence of Hillevar in the mentioned periods. Some people believe that settlements of Hillevar residences has resulted to the abandonment of this village.
The most attractive thing in Kandovan village is its unique rocky architecture. This kind of architecture represents the scene of human & natural fight as well as serve natural cliffs.
Rocky architecture monuments existing in most of the areas in the world such as Italy, Afghanistan, Greece, Peru, Latin America and China are haunted in spite of Kandovan. The The rocky architecture like as what is seen in Kandovan village has been seen in another place of the earth i.e. in the Beautiful Gurma Valley in Cappadocia region of Turkey which is haunted, too. So, Kandovan is the only unique sample of old places which has been used yet & people are living in.
In the other words, Kandovan is the only live architecture in the world which the people are living in. In fact, Kandovan village is a series of Cone-shaped rocks which the villagers have curved its inside and have changed it to resistance. Rocks have formed from a kind of volcanic rock called (tuff). The loose parts of outer parts of cone have been eroded and demolished by the climate factors such as wind & rain and its hard parts have been remained. The space inside the rocks is called "bound". It is more expanded in the cone base & its size is reduced as we get closer to the cone apex. The settlements of Kandovan villagers has been expanded in the height unlike the other villages in Iran which the houses are expanded in length and width there. The Kandovan rocks are mainly two-floor and sometimes three or four-floor. The first floor are used for the corral, the second & third ones are used for the villagers living. The tenor for baking bread is made in the ground of the main room as most of the villages; but, sometimes the tenor is made out of the bound. There is a low-heighted platform in most of the bounds which is carpeted by the carpet, rug or jajim.
There are some rocks for public usage in Kandovan such as the village old bath & mosque. The Kandovan rocks have diversities. Some stick together, some of them are in pairs & some of them are individually.